Hepatitis B

hepatitis B

Table of Contents

Hepatitis B (HBV) Infection: Causes, Symptoms Treatment and Prevention

Hepatitis B is one of five viruses that can infect your liver and cause swelling. It spreads through body fluids. Most people get sick for a short time, but some people can have it for a long time. If it lasts a long time, it can really hurt your liver. There is a vaccine that can prevent Hepatitis B, but there is no cure for it.

What is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver, caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). For many people, this infection is short-term, lasting less than six months. This short-term infection is called acute Hepatitis B. 

For some people, the infection may last longer and become chronic, meaning more than six months. Chronic Hepatitis B can lead to severe problems like liver failure, liver cancer, or cirrhosis, which is when the liver gets permanently scarred.

Most adults who get Hepatitis B recover completely, even if they feel very sick at first. But babies and children are more likely to have the infection for a long time, which is called a chronic infection.

There is a vaccine that can protect you from Hepatitis B, but if you get infected, there is no cure. If you do have Hepatitis B, you can take steps to make sure you do not spread the virus to others.

Different Stages of Hepatitis B

The natural progression of chronic Hepatitis B infection unfolds across four distinct phases:

  • The immune-tolerant phase
  • Immune-active phase
  • Immune-control phase, and 
  • Immune clearance

It is not uncommon to observe a regression in phase, with disease reactivation often originating from the immune clearance phase.

In children infected through perinatal transmission, these phases follow a typical sequence and are monitored at regular intervals from birth.

Among adults, upon the initial detection of HBV infection, the individual may be in any of the four phases. The primary objective is to assess and monitor the person for 6-12 months to ascertain their current phase.

Why is it known as “Hepatitis B”?

The word “Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver. So, “Hepatitis B” means liver inflammation caused by the Hepatitis B virus. There are different viruses that can infect your liver and cause this inflammation, including Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Each type of Hepatitis is unique in how it spreads, affects your body, and is treated or prevented.

How is Hepatitis B different from other Hepatitis viruses?

Here are some important things that set Hepatitis B apart from other Hepatitis infections:

  • Vaccination: There is a safe and effective vaccine for Hepatitis B, which makes it preventable. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all children get vaccinated as soon as possible after birth.
  • Impact on Children: Hepatitis B affects children more than adults. Only about 5% of adults who get infected develop a long-term (chronic) infection, but about 30% of children under six years old do.
  • Transmission at Birth: Hepatitis B can spread through bodily fluids. This means that parents who have the virus can pass it to their babies at birth. Up to 90% of babies infected this way develop a chronic infection.
  • Chronic Hepatitis B: While chronic Hepatitis B can be managed with antiviral medications, it cannot be cured. If you have chronic Hepatitis B, you will need to take special care of your liver for the rest of your life.

Hepatitis B Prevalence

Hepatitis B is the most common liver infection in the world. Around 2 billion people, which is about 1 in 3 people worldwide, have been infected at some point. About 250 million people are living with chronic Hepatitis B, and many of them do not even know it.

In the U.S., Hepatitis B is less common than in other parts of the world, mainly because of the vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there are about 20,000 new acute Hepatitis B infections in the U.S. each year. Additionally, about 862,000 people in the U.S. are living with chronic Hepatitis B.

India is in the intermediate group for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence, with 2% to 4% of the population affected. The virus mostly spreads among children through close contact, but about 30% of cases are passed from mother to baby at birth. 

India accounts for 10% to 15% of all HBV cases worldwide, with 40 million people carrying the virus. Of these carriers, 15% to 25% may develop serious liver issues like cirrhosis, leading to high healthcare costs and early deaths. Out of the 26 million babies born in India each year, 1 million are at risk of getting Hepatitis B during their lives. [2]

Key facts about Hepatitis B [3]

  • The virus is primarily transmitted in the following ways:
    • From mother to child during birth and delivery
    • In early childhood
    • Through contact with blood or other body fluids during sex with an infected partner
    • Unsafe injections
    • Exposure to sharp instruments
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in 2022:
    • 254 million people were living with chronic Hepatitis B infection
    • 1.2 million new infections occurred each year
  • In 2022, Hepatitis B resulted in an estimated 1.1 million deaths, mainly due to:
    • Cirrhosis
    • Hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer)
  • Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccines that are safe, available and effective

Symptoms of Hepatitis B Infection

Not everyone with Hepatitis B infection will have symptoms, but when they do, they can range from mild to severe. Symptoms can appear during the acute (short-term) phase of infection, or during the chronic (long-term) phase. You can still spread the virus even if you do not have any symptoms.

Common symptoms of Hepatitis B infection include:

  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting 
  • Joint Pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue

You might also notice symptoms of liver disease, which can include:

  • Jaundice
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Light or clay-colored stool
  • Swelling with fluid in your belly or arms and legs

During acute infection, symptoms of liver disease could suggest a more serious reaction than usual. Even though many people clear the HBV virus without treatment, it is important to see a healthcare provider if you have symptoms of liver disease.

With chronic infection, you might experience mild or vague symptoms over time, or you might not have any symptoms at all for many years. If symptoms of liver disease appear later on, especially, it could mean your liver is starting to fail.

Causes of Hepatitis B Infection

Hepatitis B is caused by a virus called the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). This virus is passed from one person to another through blood, semen, or other body fluids. It is important to know that Hepatitis B does not spread through sneezing or coughing.

Here are some common ways HBV can be transmitted:

  • Sexual contact: If you have unprotected sex with someone who is infected, you may contract Hepatitis B. The virus can be transmitted through the exchange of blood, saliva, semen, or vaginal secretions.
  • Sharing needles: HBV can easily spread through needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood. Sharing intravenous (IV) drug paraphernalia puts you at a high risk of contracting Hepatitis B.
  • Accidental needle sticks: Healthcare workers and anyone else who may come into contact with human blood are at risk of Hepatitis B through accidental needle sticks.
  • Mother to child: Pregnant women who are infected with HBV can pass the virus to their babies during childbirth. However, almost all cases can be prevented by vaccinating the newborn. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, it is important to talk to your healthcare provider about being tested for Hepatitis B.

Acute vs Chronic Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B infection can either be short-term, known as acute, or long-term, known as chronic.

  • Acute Hepatitis B: During acute Hepatitis B infection, which typically lasts less than six months, your immune system is often able to clear the virus from your body, leading to complete recovery within a few months. Although most adults who contract Hepatitis B experience an acute infection, it can progress to chronic infection in some cases.
  • Chronic Hepatitis B: Chronic Hepatitis B infection, on the other hand, lasts for six months or longer. It persists because your immune system is unable to fully eliminate the virus. This long-lasting infection can potentially endure for a lifetime, increasing the risk of serious illnesses such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. While some individuals with chronic Hepatitis B may not experience any symptoms, others may have ongoing fatigue and mild symptoms resembling those of acute Hepatitis.

The risk of developing chronic Hepatitis B is higher if the virus is contracted at a younger age, particularly in newborns or children under five years old. Chronic infection can remain undetected for many years, sometimes even decades, until a person develops severe liver disease.

Who is more at risk of getting Hepatitis B?

Your risk of contracting Hepatitis B is higher if you are part of a community where the infection is more prevalent. You are at higher risk of infection:

  • If you have HIV: Up to 7.5% of people with HIV also have chronic Hepatitis B.
  • If you take intravenous drugs: Rates of Hepatitis B infection have sharply increased in states recently affected by the opioid crisis.
  • If you are of African, Asian, or Pacific Island descent: Infection rates in these populations range between 2% and 8%. In the US, more than half of those with chronic Hepatitis B infection belong to these groups.

How do you get chronic Hepatitis B?

In chronic Hepatitis B, the immune system is unable to eliminate the virus, leading to a persistent infection. While most people can successfully fight off the virus during the acute phase of the infection, characterized by the immune system’s recognition and attack on the virus, some individuals may not clear the virus completely.

During the acute phase, symptoms of illness such as fever, nausea, and vomiting are part of the body’s immune response. The immune system works to eliminate the virus by purging and burning it out. However, if the immune system is unable to clear the HBV virus during this phase, there is no second opportunity for the acute phase to occur.

Several factors can contribute to a weaker immune response to the virus:

  • Being a young child with an immune system that is still developing
  • Concurrent infection with another illness
  • Having a chronic medical condition that compromises the immune system
  • Undergoing immunosuppressant therapy or chemotherapy

What is reactivated Hepatitis B?

After successfully overcoming an acute Hepatitis B infection, there are instances where something triggers a weakening of the immune system against the virus later in life. It is possible that the immune system was strong during the initial infection, but now there may be a condition that compromises its function.

In such cases, the previously defeated virus can become active in the body once again. Reactivated Hepatitis B can either be temporary or long-lasting. However, because it typically occurs in individuals with weakened immune systems, it may be particularly severe and can even lead to acute liver failure.

How long can you transmit Hepatitis B to others?

You can transmit Hepatitis B to others as long as the virus remains active in your body. During an acute infection, which can last from a few weeks to six months, you are contagious throughout this period. In the case of a chronic infection, you remain contagious for the duration of the infection, which typically lasts for life.

Possible complications of Hepatitis B infection

While most complications arise from chronic Hepatitis B infection, some individuals may experience complications with acute infection as well. Although uncommon, acute liver failure can occur with acute Hepatitis B infection, which is a life-threatening emergency.

Complications of chronic Hepatitis B may include:

  1. Hepatitis D: Also known as the delta virus, Hepatitis D is another viral infection that affects individuals with Hepatitis B. Those with chronic Hepatitis B can contract both viruses, a condition known as superinfection. This significantly increases the stress on the liver and can lead to acute liver failure.
  2. Cirrhosis: In some individuals, chronic liver inflammation can progress to cirrhosis. The development of cirrhosis is a gradual process influenced by various factors, including the overall health of the liver and other underlying conditions. Cirrhosis occurs when damaged liver tissue is replaced by scar tissue, impairing the liver’s function and leading to chronic liver failure.
  3. Chronic Liver Failure: Chronic liver failure is a progressive condition where the liver gradually loses its ability to function over time. It typically follows the development of cirrhosis. Although it advances slowly, chronic liver failure is life-threatening, as the liver’s function is essential for life. As chronic liver failure progresses, it can cause severe and life-threatening complications. The only cure for chronic liver failure is a liver transplant.
  4. Liver Cancer: People with chronic Hepatitis B are at a higher risk of developing primary liver cancer, although the exact reasons are not entirely clear. In fact, healthcare providers consider chronic Hepatitis B to be the leading cause of liver cancer. Liver cancer itself is one of the leading causes of death in individuals with chronic Hepatitis B.

Risk Factors

Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with blood, semen, or other body fluids from an infected person. You are at a higher risk of contracting Hepatitis B if you:

  • Engage in unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners or with someone infected with HBV
  • Share needles during intravenous drug use
  • Are a man who has sexual relations with other men
  • Live with someone who has a chronic HBV infection
  • Are an infant born to an HBV-infected mother
  • Work in a profession that involves exposure to human blood
  • Travel to regions with high HBV infection rates, such as Asia, the Pacific Islands, Africa, and Eastern Europe
  • Have diabetes, Hepatitis C, or HIV

Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Infection

When you visit your healthcare provider, they will check for signs of liver damage, such as yellowing of the skin or abdominal pain. Several tests can help diagnose Hepatitis B and its complications:

  • Blood Tests: These can detect the presence of the Hepatitis B virus in your system and indicate whether the infection is acute or chronic. A simple blood test can also reveal if you are immune to the virus.
  • Liver Ultrasound: A special type of ultrasound, known as transient elastography, can measure the extent of liver damage.
  • Liver Biopsy: In this procedure, a small sample of liver tissue is taken for analysis to assess liver damage. This involves your provider inserting a thin needle through your skin into the liver to collect the sample for laboratory testing.

Screening healthy people for Hepatitis B

Healthcare providers often screen certain healthy individuals for Hepatitis B because the virus can silently damage the liver before any signs or symptoms appear. Consider discussing Hepatitis B screening with your provider if you:

  • Are an expecting mother
  • Live with someone who has Hepatitis B
  • Have had multiple sexual partners
  • Have had sexual contact with someone who has Hepatitis B
  • Are a man who has sex with men
  • Have a history of sexually transmitted infections
  • Have HIV or Hepatitis C
  • Have unexplained abnormal liver enzyme test results
  • Receive kidney dialysis
  • Take immunosuppressive medications, such as those for preventing organ transplant rejection
  • Use injected illegal drugs
  • Are a prisoner
  • Were born in regions with high Hepatitis B prevalence, such as Asia, the Pacific Islands, Africa, and Eastern Europe
  • Have parents or adopted children from areas where Hepatitis B is common, including Asia, the Pacific Islands, Africa, and Eastern Europe

Treatment for Hepatitis B Infection

A healthcare provider may recommend various treatment measures depending on the status of your Hepatitis B infection.

Prophylactic Treatment

If you or your child have been recently exposed to the Hepatitis B virus, your healthcare provider might recommend preventive treatments to stop the infection from taking hold. 

These treatments include:

  • Vaccination: If you have not been vaccinated yet, an immediate dose of the Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended, ideally within 24 hours of exposure. To ensure full protection, you will need two additional doses over the next six months.
  • Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG): HBIG is a substance derived from human blood that contains antibodies against the Hepatitis B virus. It is administered as an injection to help prevent infection after recent exposure.

These treatments are particularly effective in preventing transmission from parents with chronic Hepatitis B to their newborns. Infants who receive these treatments soon after birth have a positive outlook and can safely breastfeed.

Acute treatment

Acute Hepatitis B typically does not require specific medication, and many people recover without treatment. However, if you experience severe symptoms, your healthcare provider may keep a close watch for any complications and provide supportive care, such as:

  • Intravenous (IV) fluids to prevent dehydration.
  • IV nutrition to ensure your body gets essential nutrients.
  • Pain relief to help manage discomfort.

Treatment for chronic infection

There are various medications available for treating chronic Hepatitis B, but they might not be suitable for everyone. A healthcare provider will tailor a treatment plan based on your specific condition and risk factors. Your treatment plan may include the following options:


If you are being treated for chronic Hepatitis B, your healthcare provider will regularly monitor your liver health, ideally every six months, through routine checkups and tests. They will watch for any signs of active liver disease that could be impacting your liver’s function.

The tests may include:

  • Blood tests to check for liver function and viral load.
  • Imaging tests to visualize the liver.
  • Elastography, which measures the stiffness of the liver to detect scarring or fibrosis.


Experts have observed that current medications for Hepatitis B are most effective for individuals who exhibit signs of active liver disease. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), this applies to only about 25% of those diagnosed with chronic Hepatitis B.

These medications work by boosting your immune system and slowing down the replication of the virus. While they do not completely eliminate the virus, they help maintain liver health for as long as possible. Treatment options include:

  • Immune Modulator Drugs: Known as interferons, these include peginterferon alfa-2a and interferon alfa-2b. They are synthetic versions of natural antibodies that fight infections and are administered via injection over six to twelve months. They are prescribed for some adults and are the first-line treatment for children.
  • Oral Antiviral Medications: These are the most effective drugs for suppressing HBV. Your healthcare provider might recommend one or more based on your individual situation and response to treatment. First-line antivirals include tenofovir disoproxil, tenofovir alafenamide, and entecavir. Most people who start these medications will continue them for life.

Lifestyle changes

Regardless of whether you are on medication for Hepatitis B, it is crucial to take lifelong steps to protect your liver from further damage. Healthcare providers strongly advise avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy, balanced diet.

Alcohol consumption and metabolic factors like a high BMI and elevated triglycerides are major contributors to liver inflammation. If you already have chronic Hepatitis B, it is wise to limit your intake of alcohol, sugar, and fat to help reduce liver inflammation and keep your liver as healthy as possible.


If chronic Hepatitis B progresses to severe complications like cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver cancer, surgical intervention might be necessary. In some cases, this involves removing part of the liver. The liver has a remarkable ability to regenerate, provided enough healthy tissue remains.

However, if a large portion of your liver is damaged or failing, a liver transplant becomes essential. Most liver transplants use organs from recently deceased donors, which means patients often face a long waiting list. However, you might bypass this wait if you can find a living donor willing to give a portion of their liver.

Integrated Treatment for Hepatitis B

Doctors at Dr Monga’s use a combination of the most modern methods of ayurveda and allopathy, known as Integrated Medicine. Our doctors provide you with two separate prescriptions – one of modern medicines required to treat the infection, while the second of Shastrokta Ayurvedic prescription medicines to balance your doshas and improve your immunity – to treat you as quickly as possible. 

Our treatment begins with accurately diagnosing the actual cause of the problem and then understanding the particular needs of a patient before opting a treatment plan.

So, if you are also experiencing any of the symptoms of Hepatitis B, book an appointment with Dr Monga’s today and embark on your healing journey.

Preventing Hepatitis B: Steps and Tips

H3: Vaccination: Your Best Defense

The most effective way to protect yourself from Hepatitis B is through vaccination. Once vaccinated, you can navigate your daily life without the fear of accidental exposure. However, keep in mind that it takes around six months to complete the three-dose vaccine series.

Short-Term Prevention Tips

  • Practice Safe Sex: Always use a latex or polyurethane condom if you are unsure of your partner’s Hepatitis B status.
  • Avoid Sharing Personal Items: Do not share items that can come into contact with blood, like toothbrushes, razors, medical equipment, or needles.
  • Travel Precautions: If you are traveling to areas with higher infection rates, plan ahead to get vaccinated before you leave.
  • Prophylactic Treatment: If you suspect recent exposure to the virus, getting a dose of the vaccine and Hepatitis B immune globulin within 24 hours can significantly reduce your risk of infection.

How can I prevent spreading the infection to others?

Getting Diagnosed Early

  • Get Tested: Even without symptoms, get tested if you might have been exposed, particularly through your job or community. Early diagnosis helps you manage your health and prevent the spread to others.

Practicing Safe Sex

  • Inform Partners: Let your sexual partners know about your diagnosis and encourage them to get vaccinated.
  • Use Condoms: Use latex or polyurethane condoms to reduce the risk of transmission. If they might have been exposed, suggest prophylactic treatment.

Safe Needle Practices

  • Dispose Properly: If you use needles for drug injection, ensure they are disposed of safely. Always wash your hands thoroughly after use.

Planning for Childbirth

  • Communicate with Your Healthcare Provider: Inform your maternity healthcare provider if you have Hepatitis B. They can take steps to treat your baby immediately after birth, significantly reducing the risk of transmission.

Is Hepatitis B curable?

Temporary Acute Infection

  • Self-Recovery: If you have a temporary, acute Hepatitis B infection, your immune system will likely overcome it within a short period.
  • Immunity: After recovering from an acute infection, you become immune to the virus. A blood test can confirm your immunity.

Chronic Infection

  • Lifelong Management: If the virus is not cleared during the acute phase, it progresses to a chronic infection, which lasts a lifetime.
  • Treatment and Management: While chronic Hepatitis B is not curable, it can be managed with appropriate treatment. Blood tests will determine if treatment is necessary for your chronic condition.

How often is Hepatitis B fatal?

Acute Hepatitis B:

  • Low Fatality Rate: Death from acute Hepatitis B is uncommon.

Chronic Hepatitis B:

  • Higher Mortality Rate: Approximately 15% of individuals with chronic Hepatitis B succumb to the disease.
  • Childhood Infections: Among those chronically infected during childhood, about 25% experience fatal outcomes.
  • Liver Cancer Risk: Around 25% of chronic Hepatitis B infections progress to liver cancer.

Living with chronic Hepatitis B?

Stay Connected with Healthcare Providers

It is crucial to maintain a strong connection with a qualified healthcare provider, who specializes in liver health. Your provider will closely monitor the progress of your disease and offer guidance on treatment and self-care.

Regular Check-ups

Attend regular check-ups with your healthcare provider every six months or as recommended. These check-ups will involve various liver tests to monitor the disease progression and to watch for potential complications.

Medication Caution

Always consult your healthcare provider before taking any new medication, including herbal supplements. Some herbs may be harmful to your liver, or they may interact adversely with your existing medications.

Healthy Lifestyle Choices

Avoid alcohol consumption and maintain a healthy diet to manage your body weight effectively. Alcohol consumption and excess weight can impose unnecessary stress on your liver.

Preventive Measures

Protect yourself from other liver infections. If you have not already been vaccinated for Hepatitis A, it is important to get the vaccine. Additionally, undergo testing for Hepatitis C, and if diagnosed, seek appropriate treatment. Unlike Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C is curable.

Coping and support

  • Educate Yourself: Take the initiative to learn more about Hepatitis B. A good starting point is to explore resources provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  • Stay Connected: Maintain strong connections with your friends and family. Remember, Hepatitis B is not transmitted through casual contact, so it is important not to isolate yourself from the support system that your loved ones provide.
  • Prioritize Self-Care: Focus on taking care of yourself. Ensure that you maintain a healthy lifestyle by consuming a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, engaging in regular exercise, and getting sufficient rest.
  • Liver Health Management: Protect the health of your liver by abstaining from alcohol consumption and refraining from taking any prescription or over-the-counter medications without consulting your healthcare provider. It is also essential to get tested for Hepatitis A and C. If you haven’t been exposed to Hepatitis A, consider getting vaccinated for it.

By following these suggestions, you can better manage your Hepatitis B infection and maintain a good quality of life.

Preparing for your appointment

H4: Initial Consultation:

Your first point of contact for Hepatitis B may be your family healthcare provider. However, depending on your condition, you might be promptly referred to a specialist for further evaluation and management.

Specialists Involved:

Specialists who focus on treating Hepatitis B include:

  • Gastroenterologists: Doctors who specialize in digestive diseases.
  • Hepatologists: Experts in liver diseases, they can offer specialized care for Hepatitis B.
  • Infectious Disease Specialists: Healthcare professionals who specialize in managing infectious diseases.

By consulting with these specialists, you can receive comprehensive care tailored to your specific needs and effectively manage your Hepatitis B infection.

What you can do

Preparing for your appointment is crucial to ensure you make the most out of your consultation. Here is what you need to know:

Pre-Appointment Preparations:

  • Check for any pre-appointment restrictions when scheduling your visit. Ask if there are specific dietary restrictions or any other preparations you need to make beforehand.
  • Take note of your symptoms, even those that may seem unrelated to your reason for the appointment.
  • Jot down essential personal information, such as recent life changes or significant stresses.
  • Make a comprehensive list of all medications, including vitamins and supplements, that you currently take.
  • Consider bringing a trusted family member or friend along to your appointment. They can provide support and help you remember the information provided during the consultation.
  • Prepare a list of questions to discuss with your healthcare provider.

Key Questions to Ask:

  • What is the probable cause of my symptoms or condition?
  • Besides the primary cause, what are the other potential reasons behind my symptoms or condition?
  • What diagnostic tests do I need to undergo?
  • Is my condition likely to be temporary or chronic?
  • Has Hepatitis B caused any damage to my liver or resulted in other complications, such as kidney issues?
  • What is the recommended course of action for my condition?
  • Are there any alternatives to the primary treatment approach you’re suggesting?
  • How can I effectively manage my other existing health conditions along with Hepatitis B?
  • Are there any specific restrictions or precautions I need to follow?
  • Do I need to see a specialist for further evaluation and management?
  • Should my family members also get tested for Hepatitis B?
  • What steps can I take to prevent the transmission of Hepatitis B to those around me?
  • Is there a generic version of the prescribed medication available?
  • Can I have access to informational brochures or recommended websites for additional resources?

What to expect from your doctor

During your appointment, your healthcare provider will likely inquire about various aspects of your health and medical history. Here are some questions they may ask:

  • When did you first notice your symptoms?
  • Have you experienced any symptoms of jaundice, such as yellowing of the eyes or clay-colored stool?
  • Have you received the Hepatitis B vaccine in the past?
  • Do your symptoms occur continuously or intermittently?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • Do you notice any factors that alleviate your symptoms?
  • Do you notice any factors that exacerbate your symptoms?
  • Have you ever undergone a blood transfusion?
  • Do you use intravenous drugs?
  • Have you engaged in unprotected sexual activity?
  • How many sexual partners have you had?
  • Have you previously been diagnosed with Hepatitis?

These questions are important for your healthcare provider to better understand your condition and provide you with appropriate care and treatment.


Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection that affects millions worldwide. Knowing its symptoms, causes, available treatments, and preventive measures is crucial. Stay informed, take proactive steps, and work closely with healthcare professionals to manage and prevent the spread of this potentially life-threatening virus.

Discover the comprehensive approach of Dr. Monga’s Clinic in Delhi, pioneering the integrated method for Hepatitis B treatment. By blending modern medicine with the holistic goodness of Ayurveda, Dr. Monga’s Clinic offers a unique and effective solution for quickly treating Hepatitis B and empowering patients to lead normal, healthy lives.


Individuals with chronic Hepatitis B face an elevated risk of developing serious liver complications such as liver failure, liver cancer, or cirrhosis, a condition characterized by permanent scarring of the liver.

It is crucial to understand that Hepatitis B is a chronic medical condition, similar to diabetes and high blood pressure, that can be effectively managed with proper care for your health and liver. With diligent management, you can expect to lead a long and fulfilling life.

Absolutely, if you are living with Hepatitis B, you can safely get married and have children

While all types of Hepatitis are treatable, only Hepatitis A and C are curable. In most cases, individuals with Hepatitis A or Hepatitis B infection will recover spontaneously without any long-term liver damage. There, however, are rare instances where individuals with Hepatitis B may progress to chronic liver disease, which can include conditions such as cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver cancer.

Hepatitis B is not transmitted through saliva (spit), so it cannot be contracted by sharing food or drinks or using the same fork or spoon. Additionally, the virus is not spread through activities such as kissing, hugging, holding hands, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B (https://www.cdc.gov/Hepatitis/hbv/index.htm)
  • Hepatitis B Foundation. What Is Hepatitis B? (https://www.hepb.org/what-is-Hepatitis-b/what-is-hepb/)
  • National Library of Medicine. Hepatitis B (https://medlineplus.gov/Hepatitisb.html).
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Hepatitis B (https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/viral-Hepatitis/Hepatitis-b).
  • World Health Organization. Hepatitis B (https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/Hepatitis-b).
  • Feldman M, et al., eds. Hepatitis B. In: Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 11th ed. Elsevier; 2021. (https://www.clinicalkey.com)
  • Kellerman RD, et al. Hepatitis A, B, D, and E. In: Conn’s Current Therapy 2022. Elsevier; 2022. (https://www.clinicalkey.com)
  • Lok AS. Hepatitis B virus: Clinical manifestations and natural history. (https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search)
  • Eng-Kiong T, et al. Epidemiology, transmission, and prevention of Hepatitis B virus infection. (https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search)
  • Training workshop on screening, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C (https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/searo/hiv-hepatitis/training-modules/07-hbv-natural-history.pdf?sfvrsn=520b7c01_2)

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